Wednesday, March 25, 2020

ARISTOTLE Essays (4696 words) - Aristotle, , Term Papers

ARISTOTLE Aristotle is considered one of the greatest minds of classical Greece. Dante even proclaimed him the master of those who know.? He made tremendous contributions in the areas of science and mathematics, not to mention philosophy. In fact, he contributed extensively to chemistry, physics, biology, created formal logic, thoroughly studied systems of government, and developed a biological classification system.? However, the majority of those alive at the time took greater stock in his political philosophies.? It is important to know that Aristotle was one of the first men to explore science, anatomy, and the animal kingdom in depth and to recognize his considerable contribution to philosophy. LIFE Aristotle was born in Stageira, a Greek colony in Macedonia, in 384 BC. Generations of Aristotle's family including his father, Nichomachus, had served as physicians to the Kings of Macedonia. His parents died when he was about ten years old and he was taken in by foster parents: Proxenos and his wife. He moved to Athens at the age of seventeen, and he remained there for some twenty years. This is where he got his first taste of the sciences and actively became a teacher. He studied under Plato, whose influences are most apparent in Aristotle's theoretical and practical philosophies. He greatly admired Plato all the way to his death, despite the fact that he later opposed some of his most important points. Aristotle was married twice, first to the foster daughter of his noble friend Hermeias, named Pythias. After her death he married Herpyllis, who came from his birthplace, Stageira. There was some controversy surrounding this marriage because Herpyllis did not have as high a social position as his first wife, Pythias. Herpyllis gave birth to his son Nichomachus and was entrusted with the care of his daughter from his first marriage. After the death of Alexander the Great, Athens was taken over by people who didn't like Alexander. They suspected Aristotle of sympathizing with Alexander, and he was exiled from Athens. Aristotle died in 322 BC at the age of sixty-two in Chalkis on the island of Euboea, which had granted him refuge when he was exiled from Athens. ARISTOTLE'S SCHOOL Aristotle began his own education at the Academy in Athens when he first arrived from Macedonia. When he first arrived the Academy had already been open for twenty years. Aristotle would spend twenty more years as a pupil and also as a teacher. The Academy was founded by Plato, but during a great deal of Aristotle's stay Plato was away in Sicily. Math and science were taught as well as philosophical dialect. The school functioned primarily to examine thought itself and explore its power. It was thought at this time that philosophers were capable of solving the problems of mankind. They were the great thinkers who would guide their fellow men. In 347 BC Aristotle left Athens, partly because he was growing dissatisfied with the Academy but mainly because of the anti-Macedonian atmosphere emerging there as a result of the political unrest in that country. Aristotle set out for the court of Hermias, ruler of Assos in Asia Minor. In the years that Aristotle spent away from Athens there were many political changes in Macedonia. Shortly after his arrival Hermias would be killed (as a part of his court Aristotle was forced to flee to Lesbos) and Philip would make peace with Athens and unite all of Macedonia. Aristotle returned to a very different Macedonia, where he would give lectures to Alexander the Great. In 335 BC Aristotle returned to Athens where he founded the Peripatetic school. This new school was highly successful and came to outshine the Academy, despite the fact that the philosophy taught there was based on Plato's work. Only later and gradually would Aristotle's school develop its new philosophy. For now, it had a sort of improved Platonic philosophy, one that would appeal to the younger men in the Greek world. One large difference is the library Aristotle installed at the school. It was to be the largest collection of books in history, and was the model for the famous State libraries of Alexandria and Pergamum. Differences in the fundamental attitudes of the schools were that while early philosophers such as Plato had directed their thinking to

Friday, March 6, 2020

Eotyrannus - Facts and Figures

Eotyrannus - Facts and Figures Name: Eotyrannus (Greek for dawn tyrant); pronounced EE-oh-tih-RAN-us Habitat: Woodlands of Western Europe Historical Period: Early Cretaceous (125-120 million years ago) Size and Weight: About 15 feet long and 300-500 pounds Diet: Meat Distinguishing Characteristics: Small size; relatively long arms with grasping hands About Eotyrannus The tiny tyrannosaur Eotyrannus lived during the early Cretaceous period, about 50 million years before more famous relatives like Tyrannosaurus Rexand, following a common theme in evolution, this dinosaur was much smaller than its giant descendant (the same way the first, mouse-sized mammals of the Mesozoic Era were much smaller than the whales and elephants that evolved from them). In fact, the 300- to 500-pound Eotyrannus was so slender and wiry, with relatively long arms and legs and grasping hands, that to the untrained eye it might look more like a raptor; the giveaway is the lack of single, giant claws on each of its hind feet, as sported by the likes of Velociraptor and Deinonychus. (One paleontologist speculates that Eoraptor was actually a non-tyrannosaur theropod closely related to Megaraptor, but this idea is still being digested by the scientific community.) One of the most remarkable things about Eotyrannus is that its remains were discovered on Englands Isle of Wightwestern Europe isnt exactly famous for its tyrannosaurs! From an evolutionary point of view, however, this makes sense: we know that the earliest tyrannosaurs (like the 25-pound, feathered Dilong) lived a few million years before Eotyrannus in eastern Asia, while the largest tyrannosaurs (like the multi-ton T. Rex and Albertosaurus) were indigenous to late Cretaceous North America. One possible scenario is that the very first tyrannosaurs migrated west from Asia, quickly evolving to Eotyrannus-like sizes, and then reached the culmination of their development in North America. (A similar pattern held with horned, frilled dinosaurs, the tiny progenitors of which originated in Asia and then made their way westwards to North America, spawning multi-ton genera like Triceratops.)

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Improving Transactional Processing in AIS with Internal Controls Essay

Improving Transactional Processing in AIS with Internal Controls - Essay Example Technology enhances the ability to capture, analyze, and simulate financial data with ease. This translates to accruement of benefits, such as saving costs, elimination of redundancies, and streamlining of activities. The chief objective of IAS in all cycles includes capturing and processing of data concerning business activities, storing and organizing data to aid in decision making, and providing controls, which maintain reliability of data and safeguarding of resources (Sajady, Dastgir & Nejad, 2008). The advancement of information technology has enabled companies to transform their accounting information systems into automated processes via use of computers, servers, and accounting software. Revenue cycle refers to recurring set of business activities and related information processing operations connected to the provision of goods and services to clients and collection of cash payments. The core AIS functions carried out in the revenue cycle include capturing and processing of data, storing and organization of the data for decision making, and provision of controls to safeguard resources (Hall, 2011). The four basic business activities prominent in the revenue cycle include sales order entry, shipping, billing, and cash collection. IT can improve efficiency and effectiveness by routing online orders expressly to the warehouses for picking and shipping. In addition, technological changes can be achieved via electronic data interchange (EDI), which links the company directly to clients and as well manage the customer’s inventory (Gelinas, Dull & Wheeler, 2012). A firm may also use email and instant messaging to notify sales staff of any price changes. Transaction technology such as point of sales systems (POS) can link customer master files to enable automatic updates to accounts receivable. In cash collections, the firm may adopt electronic funds

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Case study 2 negotiation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Case study 2 negotiation - Essay Example In this case, the supervisor is fast to dismiss Danya’s application. According to Dwyer (2011), â€Å"Power is a useful tool in the negotiation process; however, if you misuse it or refuse to use it appropriately, the likely result is tension and conflict† (p. 154). The tension between the supervisor and Tanya came about as the supervisor used the power that he had over her to dismiss her application, and made comments that were not pleasing at all. If the supervisor had listened to Danya’s positions and interests, he would have approached her in a calm manner that would not have threatened the relationship between them. This case study looks into the cause of the problem and how it impacted on the main participants. It also suggests and evaluates some solutions, recommends the best solution and explains how to implement it by using the â€Å"negotiation theory ". Analysis of the problem The problem can be analyzed by examining the negotiation approaches of Dany a and her supervisor. The problem occurs because both parties have interests to meet and the two are not keen to consider the other party’s point view. Danya’s interest are visiting her grandchild and wants to do so by taking advantage of the flight promotion so as to pay less for the flight. Danya’s optimism of getting the leave and an addition of two weeks leave get thwarted and she gets devastated because of the rejection. The supervisor on the other hand has a contract that has a limited deadline and needs Danya’s support because she happens to be one of the best worker. The problem ensued as the two parties could not agree on what should happen. The supervisor is stern on his decision and rejects her application without giving Danya a chance of explaining herself as to why she needed to have her break at that time. Furthermore, he acts out of the stress of the contract and allows the stress to overcome his thoughts and emotions and is quick to make n egative comments about Danya. According to Leimbach (2011), â€Å"Paying attention to interests helps uncover the "why" behind a position.† (p. 36). If Danya had listened to why the supervisor was not willing to grant her the leave, she would have understood him and there would not have been any problem. Danya also assumes that her being the best of the employees would definitely make the supervisor grant her, her wants. She was not ready for any outcome and was not flexible to allow herself take in any outcome of the application. She is quick to judge the supervisor’s actions and believes the company does not recognize her excellent performance, which makes her to burst out. She is also frustrated that she will lose the money of the ticket she’d already paid for. She feels disappointed when her request is turned down by the supervisor who tells her that she is not showing any commitment to the company. According to Jenkins (1997), â€Å"with a principled negot iation approach, the salesperson focuses on the problem and how to solve it† (p. 30). In this case, instead of getting frustrated by the way the supervisor acted, she ought to have thought of how the misunderstanding of the supervisor thinking she has no commitment to the company would get settled. Range of solution The problem can be solved by number of ways. First of all, the supervisor should give Danya an offer of paying for her flight if she cooperates with them to meet the deadline. The other solution would be that Danya gets a

Monday, January 27, 2020

Congestive Cardiac Failure: Signs, Symptoms and Treatment

Congestive Cardiac Failure: Signs, Symptoms and Treatment James Rowe Assessment 2 Mr Wrights admission states that he has heart failure (Congestive Cardiac Failure). Clearly define heart failure. What organs and which body systems are affected by this disorder? CCF is a condition in which the heart doesn’t pump as it should and therefore has an impaired cardiac output. Causes include MI, ischaemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy. Mainly includes heart and lungs due to fluid back up from the left ventricle. However can cause problems throughout the body. (Harris and Nagy et al., 2009) Give a brief overview of the normal function of the body systems affected by this disorder. Digestive à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   Aids in the absorption of nutrition. When a person suffers CCF an impaired blood supply is received by the digestive system meaning nutrition imbalance is possible. Also constipation. Circulatory à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   When someone suffers from CCF fluid back up in the ventricle can cause circulation problems. Also the fact that the heart is not pumping as effectively as it should means a poor circulatory system. Repertory à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   Fluid back up in the lungs can cause respetory problems. Making it difficult to breath. Also the fluid in the lungs causes impaired gas exchange meaning poor oxygenation of the blood. Renal à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   The renal system is affected because the limited blood supply and poor blood pressure (Before vasoconstriction) mean that there is a poor urine output. This fluid that is normally eliminated from the body builds up as oedema in the limbs. (Hopkins and Cavaiuolo et al., 2008) Define signs and symptoms of heart failure and explain why these signs and symptoms occur. SOB (Dyspnoea) Fluid back up in lungs causing impaired gas exchange Persistent cough/Wheezing (Cough with white or pink sputum) – Due to fluid build up in lungs. Oedema (Back up of fluid) (Legs if right sided/Lung if Left sided) Tiredness/Fatigue (Blood diverted to core so weakness in peripheries caused) Lack of appetite/Nausea (Due to altered blood supply to liver and digestive system) Confusion/Impaired thinking (Lack of oxygenated blood being pumped effectively) Increased heart rate (Heart trying to compensate for low blood flow) Irregular heart beat (Ucsfhealth.org, 2014) Reduced ability to exercise (Due to dyspnoea) Increase need to urinate at night Swelling of the abdomen Hypertension (Blood vessel constrict to increase the BP to increase oxygenation around the body) Chest pain (If caused by heart attack) (Mayoclinic.org, 2014) Orthopnoea (SOB when lying flat) Caused because the heart can’t cope with the excess blood returning to the heart Cardiomegaly – Increased size of the heart muscle due to the compensation of working harder List the information taken on his admission that demonstrates these signs and symptoms. A low SPO ² reading This is because of the decrease of oxygen in the blood. Possibly due to fluid back up in the lungs that is creating impaired gas exchange in the alveoli. Cyanotic – Due to the decrease in oxygen in the blood stream this would make Pt slightly cyanotic Slight confusion – Due to impaired gas exchange there could possibly be a build up of Carbon Dioxide in the blood that would lead to slight confusion in the Pt. Low BP – This could be due to the fact the blood vessels have not yet constricted to increase blood pressure (Blood pressure increase when CCF occurs to increase oxygenation around the body) High pulse The heart is trying to compensate for the low oxygen in the body and is also compensating for the fluid being left in the ventricles. This means it beats faster to try and increase the rate in which the blood travels around the body. Do you think his diabetes is related to his left ulcer and amputated left toe? Explain. The left ulcer may be due to poorly managed diabetes causing neuropathy. This is where the nerve is damaged. People with diabetes have a greatly increased risk of developing neuropathy in the lower extremities. Making the Pt unaware of any trauma or damage to the foot, also because the foot has very little sensation it is often neglected causing ulcers to occur due to the break down in the tissue. (Nfb.org, 2014) Diabetes affects blood supply to the extrematies of the body. This results in the lower portion of the body being deprived of oxygen. In some cases the circulation becomes so bad that the limbs become necrotic and need amputation. Often the first sign of a circulation problem is with the toes. This could be a contributing factor to why the Pt needed a toe amputation. (Netdoctor, 2014) Another possible reason as to why the Pt needed an amputation is because of the high level of uric acid in the blood. Due to the poor circulation the body often does not get blood through the kidneys before a high level of metabolic waste has built up in the blood. This means that high concentration levels of these metabolic waste build up in blood. One of the main metabolic waste is uric acid. This builds up in the blood and crystallises. This then travels to the lowest part of the body. Due to gravity. Often building up in the toes leaving it ischaemic. (Thegoutkiller.com, 2014) One of the medication he is taking is Lasix. What is the action of Lasix? Which body systems are affected by it? Explain why you think Mr Wright is ordered Lasix. (Your answer need only be brief) Lasix (Frusemide) is a drug that helps for fluid and electrolyte balance. The action of Lasix is that it inhibits reabsorption at the loop of Henle in the kidney. This is so that the body is not absorbing the fluid passing through the loop of Henle. The reason why Mr Wright would be ordered an anti-diuretic drug is to prevent his body from absorbing water and thus removing the risk that he will develop an oedema in his legs. (Mckenna, 2010) List three conditions in Mr Wrights medical history that are commonly associated with age. Glaucoma – This is an increased pressure in the optic that can limit blood flow. Therefore the reduced blood flow causes degeneration and vision loss. The pressure also effects the optic nerve so messages from the eye to the brain become impaired. The condition is rare in younger people, but is associated with aging. (Harris and Nagy et al., 2009) Arthritis – Arthritis is an umbrella term used to describe over 100 types of an illness. Arthritis affects the musclo-skeletal system at the point where two joints meet. Symptoms include pain, stiffness and in some cases inflammation. (Arthritisaustralia.com.au, 2014) Constipated – This could be related to the CCF and the body keeping blood supply to the main organs and therefore being a decreased amount of blood going to the digestive tract causing constipation. Using Mr Wrights admission history and assessment, list the factors that may impact his safety whilst in hospital and when he returns home. Confusion Poor Mobility Loss of appetite Poor vision Condition of leg ulcer (On return home) What other health professionals will be involved in his care and what service can they provide for Mr Wright. OT à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   Could asses Mr Wright in his mobility and offer him more support than his stick may offer. Such as a 4WW. Social Service à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   Could asses Mr Wrights home to see if he needs any more home aids. Could also link Mr Wright into local community through community centres. Asthma Nurse à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   Would be used to educate Mr Wright with his asthma condition. Could teach him possible early warning signs of asthma so he knows the early warning signs. Diabetic Nurse à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   Education for his diabetes. Could teach Mr Wright ways of managing his diabetic state. Dietician à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   Could come up with a diabetic diet plan for Mr Wright therefore reducing the amount of self medication Mr Wright has to do. Cardiologist à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   Monitor condition of CCF. List the nursing documentation that you would expect to be used in the care of MR Wright. FBC (Fluid balance chart) à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   For the oedema R/T CCF OBS chart à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   Monitor oxygen levels, pulse and resp rate R/T CCF Limb Obs à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   Monitor blood flow to lower limbs below the point of trauma to check for blood supply. Medication chart à ¯Ã†â€™Ã‚   Monitor what medication Mr Wright is on R/T CCF and Diabetes. References Arthritisaustralia.com.au. 2014. What is arthritis. [online] Available at: http://www.arthritisaustralia.com.au/index.php/arthritis-information/what-is-arthritis.html [Accessed: 9 Apr 2014]. Diabetes.co.uk. 2014. Diabetes and Amputation. [online] Available at: http://www.diabetes.co.uk/diabetes-and-amputation.html [Accessed: 9 Apr 2014]. Harris, P., Nagy, S. and Vardaxis, N. J. 2009. Mosbys dictionary of medicine, nursing and health professions. Chatswood, N.S.W.: Elsevier Australia. Hopkins, S., Cavaiuolo, J. and Gotting, M. 2008. Diploma of nursing. Adelaide, S. Aust.: DFEEST. Mayoclinic.org. 2014. Heart failure Symptoms Diseases and Conditions Mayo Clinic. [online] Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-failure/basics/symptoms/con-20029801 [Accessed: 8 Apr 2014]. Mckenna, L. 2010. Australia New Zealand nursing midwifery drug handbook. Broadway, N.S.W.: Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Netdoctor. 2014. Amputation of the toe. [online] Available at: http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/surgical-procedures/amputation-toe.htm [Accessed: 9 Apr 2014]. Nfb.org. 2014. DIABETIC FOOT PAIN. [online] Available at: https://nfb.org/images/nfb/publications/vod/vodsum0403.htm [Accessed: 9 Apr 2014]. Thegoutkiller.com. 2014. Diabetes and Gout . . . twins? Where you find one, you see the other?. [online] Available at: http://thegoutkiller.com/blog/uric-acid/diabetes-and-high-uric-acid-levels/ [Accessed: 9 Apr 2014]. Ucsfhealth.org. 2014. Heart Failure Signs and Symptoms | Conditions Treatments | UCSF Medical Center. [online] Available at: http://www.ucsfhealth.org/conditions/heart_failure/signs_and_symptoms.html [Accessed: 8 Apr 2014].

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Let’s be Lefties for a Day Essay

During the â€Å"Let’s be lefties† experiment, I found it very difficult to complete my everyday morning tasks without using my right hand. Some of the things I did that day were laundry, dishes, (which took double the time) and writing with my left hand as well. According to the Huffington post, left handed people make up about only ten percent of the population, but researchers have found that in populations with certain mental disorders, rates increases. According to a recent study published in the Journal of Economic Perspectives, lefties make about 10 to 12 percent less annually than righties. The paper, written by Joshua Goodman, an economist at Harvard’s Kennedy School, is the first study to document the income gap between right-handed and left-handed people. It may have something to do with how left-handedness correlates with other attributes. Goodman found that left-handed people have more emotional and behavioral problems, have more learning disabilitie s such as dyslexia, complete less schooling, and work in occupations requiring less cognitive skill. In his research, Goodman analyzed five data sets from the U.S. and the U.K. that all look at how being left handed affects cognitive skill and income over a set amount of time. Goodman found that about 11 to 13 percent of the population is left-handed, a finding that prior research supports. Now that we’ve discussed the experiment along with some theories and facts about being left handed, we will now look at the importance of understanding cultural, ethnic, and gender differences by managers and professionals in a business setting. Diversity basically refers to the ways people differ from one another. People differ from each other in many ways such as culturally, ethnically and by gender. It can be difficult at times working as a team  with individuals from different backgrounds. Managers must understand the advantages and disadvantages brought on by different cultures. Cultural and ethnic differences are a fact of life in the workplace. People tend to stereotype individuals from other cultures or races. This can be challenging but must improve. To be effective and provide a better working environment, managers and employees need to recognize, respect, and capitalize on their differences. This will and can reduce stress and make a better workplace. Women in the workplace are still at a disadvantage. Women are regarded as inferior to men at the workplace in relation to job level and salary. In order to understand diversity in a professional workplace, it requires organization to develop policies and procedures that employees need to follow. According to the Health and Humans Services organization, cultural and linguistic competence are a set of behaviors, attitudes, and policies that enables effective work in cross-cultural situations and conveys information that is easily understood by diverse audiences. According to Huffington post, there is still a lot of work to be done with educating people in the acceptance of the diverse cultures and ethnic groups. In conclusion, we can offer videos, literature, activity and role playing as ways to educate individuals to better adjust to the diverse cultures that are around us. Acceptance and respect are the biggest issues. As a manager, we must first accept and acknowledge the culture and learn to grow.

Friday, January 10, 2020

On Ageing by Maya Angelou Essay

Warning by jenny joseph is a humorous way of looking towards old age. It is written as a monologue within which the poet describes how she will behave when she is an old woman. In The first stanza she talks about herself and lists all the things she will do when she is old. She says she will wear the colours purple and red which are significant in the fact that they are bright garish colours. The two colours clash with each other and would not be put together by someone who cares about keeping up their appearance. One of the main themes to this poem is the idea of rebelling against the way society expects you to behave and the idea of not conforming therefore she decides to deliberately make a statement with her appearance by wearing clashing colours to show rebellion against the idea of everyone looking the same- everyone conforming. This idea of rebellion is further emphasised when she says â€Å"I shall spend my pension on brandy†¦ and say we’ve no money for butter†. She has decided that she is going to be deliberately difficult and irresponsible. She is desperate to rebel against the norms of responsible adulthood and change the way she has always been † escape from the sobriety of my youth† . The acts she chooses are harmless and humorous and she will be likely to get away with them as people will think she is senile. The fact that all of these things are what she wants to do in the future shows that she has never done this before and so she could be saying that old age is the time for freedom and to escape from the rules in society. However this could also show that she is only able to do these things with the excuse of being elderly. She would never feel comfortable to break the rules without having the excuse of being senile etc hence why she is waiting until old age to do these things showing that she is still trapped in the rules of society. This shows the underlying more depressing image behind the humour that society doesn’t allow for freedom and the message of how the pressure there is to conform prevents you from being yourself. All of the lines in the poem run on with a quick pace into each other reflecting the excitement and anticipation for the things she talks about doing. Throughout she repeats â€Å"and† and â€Å"I† which also adds to the pace and energy of the poem. The second stanza itself is one long sentence in which she directly addresses the reader with words of encouragement. She wants other people to feel and be able to do whatever they like without worrying about the social pressures of conformity, she could be thinking that if everyone does this then eventually those pressures will not be a problem anymore.